may’s artist: caravaggio

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Michelangelo Merisi de Caravagio was born was born on September 29,1571 in the small town of Caravagio, which is outside of Milan, Italy. His father was an assistant to a local nobleman and he grew up in a moderately comfortable life. However, Caravaggio lost both of his parents to plague during his teen years. After his mother passed away he became an apprentice with a painter in Milan. During this time, he trained in the Lombard style, which valued simplicity and attention to natural details. This would show in his work throughout his life. After his apprenticeship, he went to work in a factory like setting painting painting flowers and fruit for the work of a master. This was the common practice at the time, artists would work their way up from painting background details in a better known artist’s workshop until they had gained enough skill and notoriety to open their own studio. Although many artists never rose above this more craftsman like position. However, this was a great time to be a painter in Rome. The Catholic church was expanding rapidly and needed art to fill the new cathedrals and other buildings being constructed. During this time, he developed a dramatic style of lighting to create intense tension and emotion in his paintings. This style, called chiaroscuro, uses a very dark background with dramatically lit subjects.

Caravaggio was rebellious from the beginning of his study. Instead of the perfectly depicted gods of the ancient Greek and Roman sculpture that apprentices faithfully reproduced, he would emphasize their humanity, playing it up to extremes. He infamously painted the god Bacchus (who was the god of fertility and wine-making, essentially the embodiment of the good life) as green and sickly. He painted David and Goliath, but put himself as the beheaded Goliath.

It is not hard to imagine that his contrary nature showed in his interpersonal relationships as well. He had many tumultuous interactions with other artists, especially during his apprenticeship years. He left Milan for Rome after getting into trouble for assaulting a police officer. Then fled Rome after killing another man in a brawl and being sentenced to death in 1606. For the next four years, Caravaggio lived in Naples and Malta (Which were outside of Roman jurisdiction and allowed him to evade punishment). He was knighted and briefly served in the Knights of Malta, but was imprisoned and expelled from the Knights for badly injuring another knight during yet another brawl.

Everywhere he went, Caravaggio was almost immediately successful, but his prideful manner and quick temper made it hard for him to stay anywhere for long. Hoping to gain a pardon from the Pope, He made his was back to Rome and died during the journey in July of 1610. There are varying accounts on what happened. He may have died from a fever, which he had complained to friends about having. Some experts feel it may have been the final stages of lead poisoning from his paints. Others feel that he was most likely killed in a fight or as revenge from the earlier incident with the powerful knight in Malta. However he died, Caravaggio’s influence on art was immediate and profound. He began a shift back to more natural and realistic proportions in art (At this time, the main school of art was Mannerism, which followed the Renaissance. The interest in ideal proportions was so exaggerated that figures often had elegant but very unnatural dimensions and form.) Chiaroscuro is a technique used frequently today to give weight to the subject of a painting and help move the viewer’s eye to what the artist feel is most important.

Today, we will try our hand at chiaroscuro. Think about a dramatic story or scene, then use the chalk pastels to capture it on paper. Set up the scene so that it creates a diagonal line of the most important information in the paper. (See how the shafts of light in Caravaggio fall in a horizontal line across the subjects. Use the light colors sparingly, so that the areas you want the viewer to focus on will jump from the page. You can blend the colors by gently rubbing in a small circle with a finger.

After the picture is complete, spray lightly, holding the can 6” from the paper to set the chalk.

april’s artist: jean-michel basquiat

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Jean-Michel Basquiat was born on December 22, 1960 in Brooklyn, New York. His mother Mathilde was Puerto Rican and his father was an immigrant from Haiti. From an early age, Jean-Michel’s artistic talent was encouraged by his mother and teachers. He was extremely bright, speaking English, Spanish and French fluently by age eleven.

Although his family was middle class and he was highly encouraged, Basquiat faced plenty of adversity. When he was seven years old, he was playing stickball in the street and was hit by a car. He spent several weeks in the hospital recuperating from injuries (including a spleen removal from the damage.) His mom gave him an anatomy book and he spent much of his time drawing and learning about the human form. Many people felt that this is where his passion for art began. Later that year, his parents separated. He and his sisters lived with his father, while his mom spent time in and out of mental hospitals. She was a talented artist in her own right, but battled mental disease.

Jean-Michel was enrolled in a handful of prestigious private schools, but could not conform to the academic environment. At age fifteen he ran away from home and lived on the street, selling handmade postcards and tee shirts for income. His graffiti was recognized for it’s artistic potential and soon he was working with clothing brands, rap labels and t.v. shows. He met Andy Warhol (whom we studied last year) in a restaurant and almost immediately formed a bond. Warhol became and mentor and father figure to Jean-Michel. They collaborated together and ultimately Warhol was the one who was able to talk Basquiat into going to rehab when developed a rapidly growing drug problem. Sadly, he passed away a couple years later at age 28 of a heroine overdose. Jean-Michel’s life and career were tragically short. However, his work greatly influenced the post-modern art world. You can see the incorporation of old masters, impressionists and modern artists which he used to create something completely new. Many said that he wasn’t prepared for the avalanche of fame and money that came so young in his career. Others feel that he may have had emotional or psychological disorders of his own that he treated himself with alcohol and drugs. Even though his contribution to art spanned a short period of time, Jean-Michel was very important.

Today we will mix media (the supplies we are using) to create our own graffiti art.

1. Plan out and lightly sketch what you want to create.

2. Use markers first to create your picture. (You can layer pastel on top of the markers, but can’t draw on top of the pastel with the markers.)

3. Use the pastels to add areas of interest. These are great for creating bold highlights and bringing areas of the picture into the foreground.

march’s artist: vincent van gogh

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Vincent Willem Van Gogh was born on 30 March 1853 into an upper middle class family, in southern Netherlands. He was the oldest of six children and very close with his brother Theo and sister Willemina. Van Gogh drew frequently as a child and was serious, quiet and introspective. These personality traits along with a fierce temper about his art and depression and alcoholism would make it hard for Vincent to succeed in an academic setting. He struggled through a few attempts at art school, but was known to battle with professors that did not understand his vision or tried to get him to conform to theirs. There is wide speculation on what mental and emotional disorders Vincent may have had, including severe depression, epilepsy and schizophrenia. Many think that he may have been autistic based on accounts from friends and family. Whatever conditions he struggled with, it was certainly made worse by severe alcoholism, smoking, lack of sleep and malnutrition. In his letters, he often described going days without eating and sleeping. He is the archetype of the tortured artist. Although he was never well appreciated for his work during his life (he only sold one painting) he is now one of the most recognizable and loved artists in history.

Vincent relied heavily on his brother Theo. After several failed career attempts that varied from mining to ministry work, Theo encouraged Vincent to pursue art full time. Theo Van Gogh was an art dealer, as were several others in the Van Gogh family; and he provided his brother with financial and emotional support throughout his life. For two years the bothers lived together in Paris; this was the time that Vincent remembered as the happiest in his life. The brothers also corresponded avidly. There are more than 600 letters from Vincent to Theo (who saved all of his letters) and around 40 from Theo to Vincent (who did not keep his.) Vincent did not seriously pursue art until he was 27 years old. Impressively, in the next ten years he would create over 2100 paintings, watercolors, and sketches.

Citing exhaustion from the busy pace of Paris, Vincent moved to Southern France, hoping to start an artists’ colony. It was during this time that he lived with the artist Paul Gauguin. The pair had a complicated and very intense friendship. Many heated debates led to the argument that ended in Van Gough slicing off a part of his ear with a razor. There are many conflicting accounts of how the incident played out; but none from Vincent, who could not remember the event afterward. He was diagnosed with an acute mental breakdown and checked into a mental hospital. He spent the next year in hospitals until he passed away from an infection after shooting himself in the chest.

Today we will paint like Vincent Van Gogh. Usually, I recommend starting with the background and working in layers, to the little details at the front. However, using Van Gogh’s style, we work directly, all prima. (Which means that we will finish the painting in one sitting working in one layer.)

1. Start by lightly sketching out your design on the canvas. You want to make the lines barely visible so that you don’t end up with graphite in your paint.

2. Using, thick strokes, paint several colors close together. Look closely at Van Gogh’s paintings. You will see trees that are green, but have yellow and purple brushstrokes side by side. The combination of colors will make your painting more interesting. Areas where you put similar colors will harmonize. If you want to make something in your painting really stand out, you can mix contrasting colors, (Red/green, blue/orange, purple/yellow, etc.) These areas will really catch the viewer’s eye.

3. Before finishing, go back and look at your piece. Are there areas that need a little refining? You might especially want to outline objects to make sure they stand out against the background and have a solid form.

february’s artist: yayoi kusama

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Yayoi Kusama was born on March 22, 1929 in Matsumoto Japan. Her family was upper middle class and very conservative and strict. Yayoi has often recounted that she did not have a happy childhood or live in a happy home. At age 13, she was sent to live and work in a military factory to sew parachutes for the Japanese army. From age 10, she suffered from acute anxiety attacks. She remembers hallucinating polka-dots that would swallow up everything, including herself. This is why polka-dots have such a strong presence in her work. She has lived side by with her mental illness, knowing it is an important part of who she is as well as her art. This may be why she so often creates a space for viewers to be swallowed up in her art and see it more from her perspective.

Kusama works in many media. She paints, sculpts, and creates installations combining different media. She has also made films, done live performance art pieces and even designs clothing. Often she creates an installation for her sculptures and paintings to be viewed within a mirrored room that gives the art an infinite and encompassing quality. Most of her work has symbolic meaning. For example, the polka-dots she uses so frequently reference her anxiety and sense of self. Pumpkins mimic the human form, she says. She uses them also as an alter-ego self portrait. She described her “Infinity Nets” paintings as “a curtain between me and other people.”

Over the years, Yayoi has been associated with several art movements, but her work can’t easily be defined by any one movement; which is part of her genius and appeal. She has won several important awards, including the Praemium Imperiale award from the Japanese Imperial family. She is the only female Japanese artist to have been given this award and is widely thought to be one of the most important artists to come from Japan.

Today we will use Yayoi Husama’s sense for bold patterns and color to create our own mixed media work. Tell students to start thinking about what they want to create while you show them the materials we have to work with. Once they have their idea in place, they can follow these steps:

1. Choose a color of card stock and lightly sketch out your design. Decide where you want to use fabric scraps and up to 4 of the embellishments in the box. (I often remind the students that we have lots of friends to share with. There are more than 500 kids that will do this project!)

2. Add color with the pastels next, get your picture how you want it and then you will be ready to glue down the fabric, etc. I think it’s helpful to color over the lines of where you want the fabric, just in case you cut it a little bit smaller or differently than you were planning.

3. Lay the fabric down on the are where you want it and draw the shape you want it cut into the fabric. Then cut it out and glue it on.

4. Touch up the color with the pastels if needed. Finally glue down the buttons/flowers, etc.

january’s project: african tribal masks

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Tribal masks have been used for hundreds of years by many of the Sub-Saharan African tribes (some dating back to 7000 BC). While they are appreciable as vibrant and skilled art. This is not their main purpose. They are for use in important ceremonies and rituals, usually revolving around weddings, funerals, initiation rites, and such. The masks aren’t meant to be perfectly accurate representations, but to show the essence of the spirit, person or animal portrayed. Often specific traits are featured to convey a message. For example, to represent power, masks may have antelope horns, crocodile teeth or the fangs of a warthog. Calmness and patience is conveyed through half-closed eyes, a small mouth and eyes represents humility while mask that represents wisdom has a wide, bulging forehead. A large chin represents power and strength. Animal features are often included. The most common are buffalo, hyena, hawk, crocodile and antelope. Antelope is one of the most widely used animal masks. It symbolizes agriculture and is worn to enable better crops. Horns represent growth of millet, legs roots of the plants while ears represent songs that women sing in the harvest time. Symmetrical lines and geometric designs show dignity and integrity. Highly polished surfaces represent youthful healthy skin and reflect the idea of beauty and virtue, while rough dirty surfaces suggest fear and evil.

Each mask has a specific spiritual meaning or represents a specific spirit and often several are used in any ritual. The mask is believed to have a spiritual power and the wearer is transformed, merging with the spirit of the animal portrayed when dancing in a ceremony or ritual.
The mask artist has a high rank in the village because it is believed that they have contact with the spirit world and their skill is not just artistic, but spiritual. Their training may last many years and can be as an apprentice in the workshop of a master carver. However, most often these skills are passed down from father to son through many generations.

Masks are made from wood, pottery, textiles, copper and bronze. Details could be made from animal teeth, hair, bones and horns as well as feathers, seashells and even straw and egg shells. Wood is the most common material because it is plentiful and many African tribes believe that the tree has a spiritual soul and it’s wood is the most natural home for the spirit in the mask. The larger and more detailed the mask, the more important the spirit it is meant to represent.
During the late 1800s, tribal masks became very popular among Europeans and directly affected the schools of art that emerged during that time. The Fauvists (Edvard Munch that we studied last year), Cubists (Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque) and many of the Impressionists incorporated the colorful, more expressive design of these African artists. Today African tribal masks are a popular art commodity, although many now are made for commercial purposes and don’t have religious significance.

Several West African tribes also used small masks as passports. Warriors and travelers from various tribes would wear a small (3-4”) mask on a band around their arm or neck to show what tribe they belonged to. A passport mask could also show what their purpose was (such as a messenger, hunter, or warrior.) They also were believed to provide protection to the wearer.

Today we will make our own passport masks. Think about the characteristics you would like to display and carefully carve out or pinch basic features into your mask.
1. Distribute 1 clay ball for each student on a small paper plate. Have the students write their name on the paper plate before getting started. Warn students that air dry clay is very brittle when completely dry. Small or thin parts sticking out are unfortunately likely to crack or break off, so it is best to keep things pretty simple.
2. Work on your paper plate to create your mask. If there are cracks, they can smoothed with wet fingers. This kind of clay works best when it it doesn’t get too wet or overworked though, so focus on carving out what you want to with the tools or pinching out small areas. Adding clay to mask often ends up cracking, but you can try to add larger details by making a crosshatch on each of the areas that will be stuck together.
3. After the basic features are made on the mask, use one of the hook tools to carefully carve the excess out of the back, leaving the clay at around a half inch thick. (This is definitely better in this case.)
4. Gently paint some details with the paints. You will want to press very lightly with the paint brush so that it doesn’t carve into the clay.
(Because painting is secondary, I would recommend sharing a paper plate “palette” between 2-4 students. Just squeeze small puddles of paint onto each plate and then add more as needed.)
5. Leave the masks on the plates to dry.

*A few more things to consider:
-Please be careful to keep bags sealed so the clay balls don’t dry out.
-Please let me know if supplies are running low. This is one that we can’t really load everything on the cart for the month. My number will be on a post-it on the cart a text that we need more will be super helpful! 😉

october’s artist: georgia o’keeffe

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Georgia Totto O’Keeffe was born on November 15, 1887. She was the second of seven children to be raised on a dairy farm in a sleepy rural area of Wisconsin.

By age 10, she knew she wanted to be an artist and began taking lessons from a local watercolor artist. She studied at the Art Institute of Chicago and later taught art at several schools, including Columbia University. She felt constrained by the prevailing practice of recreating exactly what she saw on canvas. Eventually, she moved to focus more on line and emotion than an exact portrayal of the object or scene. She ached to share her feelings through her art.

A close friend sent some of her drawings to a prominent photographer and art dealer, Alfred Stieglitz, in New York. He called them the “purest, finest, sincerest things that had entered [his gallery] 291 in a long while” He immediately set up a showing for her work. He promoted and exhibited her works professionally. Their work together soon led to their marriage in 1924.

In 1929, she began spending time in New Mexico, eventually living there full time after Alfred died. She was inspired by the desert landscape, which was the subject of many of her paintings. Georgia had a quiet, wandering personality and felt most at home in the “lonely landscapes” of the Southwest.

She achieved noterietay in her lifetime and her art was widely celebrated. Especially by those in the feminist movement, who sought after her as an ally and voice. However, she wanted to be known just as an artist, not a “female artist” and distanced herself from the movement. She was also known as a founder of the American Modernist movement. Her work transcended a lot of the established boundaries of the time, she was among the first to explore abstract painting (where there is no discernible subject) as well as to combine landscapes (a picture of a place) with a still life (a picture of a thing); creating something completely new.

Georgia O’Keeffe died on March 6, 1986 at the age 98 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

Project:
Today we will create our own O’Keeffian flower pictures, looking at them the way Georgia O’Keeffe did. Take a moment to really look at a few flowers with the students. Point out the variations of colors and shapes. Talk to them about how they can show a full flower or a few flowers, and they can also zoom in closely and show the flower from a different view.

As you look at O’Keeffe’s pictures, ask the students what they feel, what these pictures bring to mind. Point out that the colors are much more intense then they typically are in real life and the shapes tend to be simplified. Ask why they think that is. Remind them that O’Keeffe wanted to show her emotions in her work. Ask what they think she was feeling

1. Show students the variety of paper colors we have available. There are a few papers that have pastel starts. Show them how the darker colors bring out different colors than the white paper does.

2. Ask the students to share the flowers that you have placed on each table or spread around the desks. They are welcome to do more than one picture, so feel free to experiment a bit and try a few different flowers and angles.

3. They can layout their drawing in pencil, but it isn’t necessary. Part of the fun of this style of work, is the ability to play around a little!

4. Before students get started, share these tips for using pastels well:
Oil pastels are VERY soft, hold them lightly, you don’t want to press too hard. (for older students you can also explain that it fills up the little groves in the paper so that you can’t layer any more colors.)
They look best when you layer colors.
Start with a middle color that you will use lightly over the whole area.
Shade in with a darker color for the areas underneath other petals or farther away from the light.
Then use a light color to show where the highlights (where the light hits most directly.)
You may want to add in a few other colors in different areas! For example, you don’t have to stick to all greens to make a leaf. You can add some blue, purple, red or yellow.
Use the pastels to blend. You can lightly go over the top of an area with a lighter color to blend the colors underneath. (Don’t blend with your finger, it will just rub the pastel off.)
Keep your marks small and close together to get the best blending.

5. Once they are done, warn them to be careful with their papers, the colors can smear and rub off. There will be long sheets of paper on the cart that you can fold to make a protective color for the pastel.

april’s artist: salvador dali

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Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, Marquis of Dalí de Púbol (That’s a mouthful!) was born on May 11, 1904 in Catalonia, Spain to a middle-class lawyer. His father was stern, but was tempered by a sweet mother and both supported Dali’s artistic endeavors strongly. He had a younger sister and older brother who died 9 months before his birth at age 2, also named Salvador. When Salvador was five years old, he was taken to his brother’s grave and told that he was his older brother’s reincarnation. He internalized this belief and his brother’s image was often found in Dali’s artwork. He said “[we] resembled each other like two drops of water, but we had different reflections.”

When he was twelve, Dali’s parents sent him to drawing school. A few years later, his Dad set up his first exhibition of drawings in their home. At nineteen, he went to university in Madrid and drew attention with his flamboyant style. He dressed in knee-breeches and had long hair, like a 19th century gentleman. His work quickly gained more attention though. He was drawn to the modern movements and experimented, showing proficiency in both classically academic to modern movements. He had exceptional technical skill (he was trained as a draftsman) but also had a crazy personality and was known for over the top antics to promote himself and his art. At this time, he grew his iconic flamboyant mustache, based on the Renaissance painter Velasquez that he admired. His work began to take on the surrealist quality that we most know him for. The surrealist movement used photographic precision to show dream like and sometimes shocking images. In 1940, Dali and his wife fled the chaos of WWII to the United States. During this time he designed jewelry, clothes, furniture, stage sets for plays and ballet, and retail store display windows. Dali wrote books and produced movies. His outlandish personality was just a well known as his art and he was a controversial pop culture icon. While many critics despised his work, most had to agree that he was one of the most talented painters of the twentieth century. (Dali was quick to tell you that while he was nothing compared to Vermeer or Michelangelo, he was the best painter of modern times!)

Eight years later, they returned to the coast of Spain, where Dali would spend he remaining 30 years of his life. He experimented with many new techniques, using holographic, stereoscope, visual puns, and negative space. He created elaborate illusion pictures with one subject that was visible at first glance, but another completely different scene that unfolded with closer inspection. He had a glass floor installed in his workshop and used it to study foreshortening and shadows with an almost scientific approach.

Dali used an elaborate system of symbolism. While many artists leave their work open to the interpretation of the viewer, Dali was explicit in what the dream-like images in his work represent. Here are some of the most common:
Melting clock-The omnipresence of time and its mastery over all of us.
Ants-Death and decay (Dali watched ants devour the carcass of a dead bug as a child and strongly remembered the experience.)
Eggs-Hope and love, as well as motherhood
Crutches-Reality, a grounding in tradition and societal values
Drawers-Our secrets and desires (He shows many of these drawers open or slightly ajar, showing that these secrets are now known and no longer need to be feared.
Elephants-The future and strength. Often the elephants are carrying a burden to represent different things, most commonly, power and domination.
Rhinoceros-Purity, often used to represent the Virgin Mary (Dali was deeply Catholic)
Snail (and also lobster)- The human head and brain. (Dali was fascinated with hard shell and soft interior and saw a lot of symbolism in this.)
Today, we will create our own surrealist painting. Take a minute to think about the scenes you see in your dreams. The bulk of the work for this project, will be in creating a picture that says something to you. Combine real life images in a way that makes them interesting or say something new!

We will use watercolors and watercolor paper (please limit paper use since it is a little bit expensive.) Watercolors work well with pencil so feel free to add detail and pencil everything before you start painting.

Here are a few things to remember with watercolor:
Always wet your brush well before loading the paint and wet your brush frequently while working. If your color starts to get streaky, it is because your brush is not wet enough.
You can create soft colors by using a lot of water with just a bit of paint or bright, more opaque colors by swirling your brush longer in the paint.
If your water becomes dark, get new water. Clean water will help keep your colors bright.
Watercolors are meant to bleed. If you use two wet colors together, they will bleed into each other. This is part of what makes watercolor beautiful! Try it on purpose by mixing colors to create shadows.
If there is an area you want to have a definite line, you can prevent bleeding by painting one area and then giving it a few minutes to dry. Work in a different section of the page and then return to that area with the other color.
If color bleeds somewhere you don’t want, you gently “lift” it off the page by touching a napkin to the area. Fold it into a small corner if needed.

march’s artist: roy lichtenstein

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Roy Lichtenstein was born on October 27, 1923 in New York city to fairly ideal upper middle class family. As a young man, he went to private school, loved Jazz and took summer art classes. He enlisted when WWII began and served as a draftsman and artist. After the war, he earned a Master of Fine Arts from Ohio State and had his first solo exhibition soon after. He settled into a professorship at Rutgers and experimented with Expressionism, Cubism, and Abstract Impressionism.

One afternoon, his son was looking at a Mickey Mouse comic book and said “I bet you can’t paint as good as that, eh, Dad?” Roy took the challenge, producing a piece called “Look Mickey”. He loved the style and began producing paintings with hard lines and the Ben-Day style dots used in comic books. In 1961, he showed the pieces and all were purchased before the showing opened. His work was instantly popular world-wide and also highly criticized as being a shallow copy. Time magazine even labeled him the “Worst Artist Ever”. However, Lichtenstein didn’t take himself or the criticism too seriously. He said “I am nominally copying, but I am really restating the copied thing in other terms. In doing that, the original acquires a totally different texture.” Lichtenstein was part of the “Pop Art” movement, which took images from advertising and everyday objects and elevated them into fine art. Often with a heavy dose or humor and irony.

As he matured, he applied his same techniques to sculpture, creating ceramics that had a surreally 2 dimensional feel. Some of these works were done on a huge scale for municipal projects. In the 1990s, he began a series of 60 paintings that applied his stylized approach to famous paintings from Van Gogh to Degas and were shown side by side with a print of the original work. He died of pneumonia in 1997 at age 74.

Today we will create our own pop culture comic style pictures.
1. Use the rulers to draw as many frames as you want on the paper to tell the story.
2. Pencil in the details. Make it one interesting moment or tell a larger story.
3. Outline everything with a sharpie and fill in with the markers. You can use solid color or Ben-Day dots to provide some shading or texture.

february’s artist: georges braque

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Georges Braque was born on May 13, 1882 in a suburb of Paris, France. He grew up working with his father and grandfather, who were decorative house painters. He also attended art school at night. Initially, he was a member of the impressionist movement, but soon joined the Fauves. (The “Beasts” like Henri Mattise. They used bright colors to convey emotion.) Braque was fascinated with the effects of light and perspective and began experimenting with flattening images or showing multiple perspectives at once. He was good friends with Pablo Picasso and the two artists began experimenting with breaking their paintings down into the geometric shapes and combing more than one view point. The two artists often painted side by side, creating pieces that looked almost identical. The term Cubist wasn’t initially adopted by Braque and Picasso, but came from a critic, who wrote that Braque’s work was a canvas “full of little cubes” (Another example of someone criticizing an artists work, but the artist refusing to let it be a negative thing!) Within a few years, the movement was known as cubism and its popularity was spreading quickly. Cubist paintings are much easier to understand if you keep in mind the exaggeration of the shapes in a figure (for older students, mention that figures, landscapes and still life subjects were abstracted into their base shapes), along with the display of multiple perspectives at once. Braque mentioned “shattering an object into fragments” to better understand the form of the object. In 1912, the pair began to experiment with collage, creating what they termed “Papier Colle`” They pasted newspaper clippings, ads, and other papers into their work. This created a new texture and could add a different narrative to the piece.

Braque joined the French Army at the beginning of WWI and suffered a severe head injury, leaving him temporarily blind. After his recuperation, he returned to painting alone. Picasso moved onto other experiments, but Braque remained devoted to the Cubist method until his death at age 81.

Today we will paint our own canvas boards using the techniques that George Braque pioneered.

Set out the still life display on the cart. Put it somewhere centrally located if possible. Tell the students that they will not be able to touch the display, but they will be able to quietly move to a different spot in the room. Tell them that this will give them the chance to look at things from more than one angle; like Georges Braque did. Encourage them to mix the views together and focus more on the shapes of the objects than the objects themselves to create a cubist painting. If they are nervous about going right to the canvas, there is paper on the cart to do some preliminary sketches.

Tell the students to start by looking at the display and very lightly sketching it in on their canvas. Then they can quietly move to a different seat. Now look at the display again. How has it changed? Lightly add in elements from this new direction. (Remind the students that it is hard to get the graphite from their pencils off of the canvas, so make sure you draw super lightly!) Once they have created a composition they are happy with, they can paint the piece.

Don’t forget the general rules for painting:
1. Wet your brush
2. Only dip the tip into the paint (and only give them a small amount of paint to start-they canalways have more!)
3. Work from the background to the foreground. End with the small details!

Now, they can add in some of the paper. Cut or tear it into shapes that fit into their scene. Tell the students to use as much or little as they’d would like to create their artwork. They can stick it right down on top of the paint and it will stick to the canvas.

december’s artist: tomasso masaccio

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Tomasso Masaccio was born December 21, 1401 in a small town north of Florence, Italy. There is very little information documenting his life, but it was common for artists to become apprentices around age 12. Most likely, he went to work under a master in Florence around that time. His first documented work (which was signed by him) was completed in January 1422. Artists during the renaissance did not sign their work until they had achieved the status of master. Twenty-one was young to be a master and sadly Masaccio died when he was 26. During this short career though, he had a profound influence on art. He was one of the leaders that moved the style of painting from very ornate and unrealistic two-dimensional to a more natural and realistic view. He was one of the first to use linear perspective (with lines moving back to a vanishing point) as well as atmospheric perspective (where things get bluer, blurrier, and lighter as they recede into the background) in his painting. He used shading and directional light sources as well as shadows beneath objects to create much more life-like figures than the traditional use of outlines and flat, two-dimensional depictions. His work had a heavy influence on later artists, such as Michelangelo.

Masaccio created primarily religious works to ornament cathedrals, but he also painted a handful of portraits. He had a preference for showing people in profile. Today we will create our own portraits in profile. You can work with a partner and draw each other or use the hand mirrors to draw a self-portrait (Which will be more difficult, you will need to peak out of the corner of your eye to do so.)

This lesson will guide you through the general way to draw a face. Remind the students that each face is unique. It is by observing and drawing the unique features that we make our drawings life-like. This will be a bit technical, so help the students not to get too stressed out over the details.

1. Very lightly, draw a line the length you want your finished face to be. Lightly draw intersecting lines to divide this into thirds. This will give you a fame-work to keep the face in proportion.

2. Look closely at the shape of the nose then draw it in the center section, all the way from the top to the bottom.

3. In the top section, we will draw the forehead. Indent in a little where the nose meets the forehead and then bow out for the ridge of the brow bone. Now gently curve up to the top of the line to make the forehead.

4. Make a small mark 1/3 of the way down in the bottom section, this will be the mouth. Look at how the area connecting the lip and nose curves in. Make this and then curve out for the lip. The upper lip will end in the line. That is the opening of the mouth. Now make the bottom lip, indent in and slope back to make the chin. Then extend a line below the jaw down to make the neck.

5. The eyebrow will start at the top line. For now, make the general outline, but don’t worry about putting in a lot of detail. Look carefully at where the eye falls under the eyebrow. The bottom of the eye will be at about the center of the section. If you lay a pencil down at the corner of the nose the end of the eyebrow, the corner of the eye will fall along this line also.

6. Now erase the guide lines. Add in the interesting details. Make the eyebrows with several short strokes that will look like hair. Add in a few clumps of eye lashes around the eyes, frame the face with hair. For older students, you can talk a little about shading, if you’d like. Add some rich details like Masaccio would, a fancy necklace or hat. Put your subject in intricately detailed clothes, anything that makes it fun.

7. Finally, add a little bit of color by filling in the areas with chalk. Press lightly and use small strokes, then blend gently with your finger. Spray each picture with hairspray, holding the can 6” away to “fix” the chalk and pencil. This will keep them from smudging.

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